Torta di porri

Torta di porri (Leek Pie)

Torta di porri-1

The Florentine chef and food historian Giuliano Bugialli is one of my favorite Italian cookbook authors, but he is relatively little known, particularly as compared with his near contemporary Marcella Hazan. Bugialli produced a number of wonderful cookbooks, some beautifully illustrated, some not, but all grounded in solid scholarship and a deep knowledge of his subject—a rarity among ‘celebrity’ chefs. His definitive work was also his first: The Fine Art of Italian Cooking. He originally wanted to call the book The Fine Art of Tuscan Cooking, but his publisher rejected the title, because at the time (1977) it was considered too esoteric. Times have certainly changed since then!

His books do suffer a bit from excessive chauvinism and a related anti-French undercurrent. But we should remember that, at the time Bugialli was first writing, ‘gourmet’ food was equated more or less exclusively with French cuisine. Italian food was still very much under-appreciated. Most people outside of Italy did not realize that Italian food went beyond pizza and red-sauce pasta.  I can remember one Francophile friend in law school telling me, with total confidence, that while Italians had some good cooking, they did not have anything you could rightly call a cuisine. This dismissive attitude was pretty much the consensus view at the time. So I can understand Bugialli’s desire to trumpet Italian cooking and his resentment towards our Transalpine cousins.

This recipe is adapted from my dog-eared copy of Bugialli’s masterwork. He calls this dish porrata—the Italian for leek being porro—although I would venture that torta di porri is the term more commonly used by Italians today. It is a very typical example of the Italian approach to savory pies. You may notice an uncanny similarity here to the Neapolitan pizza di scarola (escarole pie) we featured some time ago, and while escarole is a favorite Neapolitan vegetable, leeks are particular appreciated in Tuscany.

Ingredients

Makes one large pie, enough for 4-6 as an antipasto or snack

For the crust:

  • 400g (3 cups) flour
  • 2 eggs
  • 15g (2 oz) active dry yeast
  • 250 ml (1 cup) warm water
  • 2 Tbs olive oil
  • A large pinch of salt

For the filling:

  • 500g (1 lb) leeks, trimmed, split and cleaned
  • 100-150g (4-6 oz) pancetta, cut into small cubes
  • 3 eggs
  • Olive oil and butter
  • Salt, to taste, and lots of pepper

Directions

Dissolve the yeast in the warm water and add to the flour, along with the rest of the ingredients for the crust. Knead until you have a uniform, smooth ball of dough. Set inside a large bowl, cover well and let sit for an hour or more.

Meanwhile, take the leeks, trim off their bottoms (and any roots) and cut off their dark green tops. Remove any tough or dried out outer leaves. Split each leek in half and check to see if there is any grit between the leaves. (NB: Leeks grow partially underground and naturally have a lot of soil lodged in them. These days, leeks are often sold pre-cleaned, but you can never tell for sure unless you look.) If you see any grit at all, wash the leeks well in several changes of water.

Torta di porri-8

Cut the leeks crosswise into thin strips. Let the cut up leeks simmer gently, covered, in abundant olive oil and a pinch of salt, until they are soft and much reduced. Uncover the pot and stir the leeks from time to time; if you notice them coloring at all, add a tad of water to keep them from browning. When the leeks are done, transfer them to a large bowl and let them cool completely. Mix in the eggs and season with a bit more salt and lots of freshly ground black pepper. (Bugialli advises that the filling should be very peppery.)

After the dough has rested, lay it on a well-floured surface, flatten it with a few bangs of your rolling pin, then roll it out into a thin disk.

Torta di porri-7

Lay the dough in a well greased springform mold about 24 cm/10 in across, letting any excess ends hang over the sides.

Torta di porri-6

Sprinkle the pancetta over the bottom of the mold, then pour over the leek and egg mixture, using a spatula to spread it evenly on top of the pancetta. Now fold the ends of the dough back over the filling. (Bugialli tells you to trim the dough so it is perfectly round, but as you can see, I didn’t bother. I rather liked the rustic, quirky appearance.)

Torta di porri-5

Bake the mold in a hot (200C/400F) oven for about 45 minutes, until the filling is complete cooked through and the crust nice and brown.

Torta di porri-4

Let the torta cool for at least 15-20 minute before unmolding and serving. It can also be served at room temperature—to my mind, it’s even better that way.

Torta di porri-3

Notes

Bugialli’s cookbook The Fine Art of Italian Cooking is sadly out of print, but used copies of the updated 1989 Random House edition are still available here on amazon.com.

This recipe is adapted Bugialli’s Porrata found on 114. The addition of olive oil to the dough is mine—I couldn’t abide the idea of a completely lean crust! I’ve converted the amount of leek—his recipe calls for 5 bunches—and reduced number of eggs a bit (his calls for a total of six, two in the crust and four in the filling). I also used less pancetta than he calls for. Truth be told, most of these adjustments had more to do with what I happened to have in the kitchen than any personal preference, but I liked the result! Bugialli’s recipe calls for a crust made from leavened dough enriched with egg, as described here, but I’ve also tried the recipe with an unsweetened pasta frolla, and it is equally delicious.

Torta di porri-2

 

Torta di porri (Leek Pie)

Rating: 51

Prep Time: 1 hour

Cook Time: 1 hour, 30 minutes

Total Time: 2 hours, 30 minutes

Yield: One large pie, enough for 4-6 as an antipasto

Torta di porri (Leek Pie)

Ingredients

    For the crust:
  • 400g (3 cups) flour
  • 2 eggs
  • 15g (2 oz) active dry yeast
  • 250 ml (1 cup) warm water
  • 2 Tbs olive oil
  • A large pinch of salt
  • For the filling:
  • 500g (1 lb) leeks, trimmed, split and cleaned
  • 100-150g (4-6 oz) pancetta, cut into small cubes
  • 3 eggs
  • Olive oil and butter
  • Salt, to taste, and lots of pepper

Directions

  1. Dissolve the yeast in the warm water and add to the flour along with the rest of the ingredients for the crust. Knead until you have a uniform, smooth ball of dough. Set inside a large bowl, cover well and let sit for an hour or more.
  2. Meanwhile, take the leeks, trim off their bottoms (and any roots) and cut off their dark green tops. Remove any tough or dried out outer leaves. Split each leek in half and check to see if there is any grit between the leaves. If you see any grit at all, wash the leeks well in several changes of water.
  3. Cut the leeks crosswise into thin strips. Let the cut up leeks simmer, covered, in abundant olive oil and a pinch of salt, until they are soft and much reduced. Uncover the pot and stir the leeks from time to time; if you notice them coloring at all, add a tad of water to keep them from browning. When the leeks are done, transfer them to a large bowl and let them cool completely. Mix in the eggs and season with a bit more salt and lots of freshly ground black pepper. (Bugialli advises that the filling should be very peppery.)
  4. After the dough has rested, lay it on a well-floured surface, flatten it with a few bangs of your rolling pin, then roll it out into a thin disk.
  5. Lay the dough in a well greased springform mold about 24 cm/10 in across, letting any excess ends hang over the sides.
  6. Sprinkle the pancetta over the bottom of the mold, then pour over the leek and egg mixture, using a spatula to spread it evenly on top of the pancetta. Now, fold the ends of the dough back over the filling.
  7. Bake the mold in a hot (200C/400F) oven for about 45 minutes, until the filling is complete cooked through and the crust nice and brown.
  8. Let the torta cool in its mold for at least 15-20 minute before unfolding and serving. It can also be served at room temperature, and to my mind it's even better that way.
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Carabaccia-4

Carabaccia (Tuscan Onion Soup)

Carabaccia-4

Carabaccia is an ancient soup, going back to the Renaissance. They say it was a favorite of Leonardo da Vinci—and that, as for so many other classic dishes,  the recipe was brought by Catarina de’  Medici to France, where it evolved into the soupe à l’oignon we all know and love today.

You may be surprised at the taste of this soup. Like me, you may even find it a bit odd, at first. We moderns are not very accustomed to the sweet-and-sour-and spicy flavor profile, which is rarely found in Italian cookery today but was very typical of its time, as was the use of ground almonds as a thickener.

Ingredients

Serves 4

  • 1 kilo (2 lbs) red onions, peeled and very thinly sliced
  • Olive oil
  • Salt
  • 100g (4 oz) of ground almonds
  • 2 Tbs of wine vinegar
  • Ground cinnamon
  • 2 Tbs of sugar or honey
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 1 liter (1 quart) broth, typically vegetarian and preferably homemade
  • Freshly grated Tuscan pecorino or Parmesan cheese
  • A slice of toasted bread per person

Directions

Mix the ground almonds with the vinegar and a dash of cinnamon and set aside to macerate.

In a large pot, preferably of terracotta or enameled cast iron, braise the onions in a generous glug of olive oil with a pinch of salt, as gently as you can possibly manage, until they are well reduced, translucent and falling apart soft. Take care that they don’t darken too much or burn as they braise; if need be, add a bit of water along the way to make sure. Usually, though, the onions throw off a great deal of their our liquid and you may actually need to let this evaporate at the end. This initial braising is the key to the success of the dish—it coaxes out natural sweet flavor of the onions and provides the foundation of the soup. Taste the onions—they should be meltingly soft and intensely sweet. The whole process will take something like 45-60 minutes. Don’t rush.

When the onions are done, add the macerated almonds and mix them into the onions. Let the onions and almonds sauté for a few minutes, then add the sugar or honey, and a good grind of black pepper, and sauté for a few minutes more.

When all the flavors have melded, add the broth and simmer the whole thing gently for about 3o minutes or so. Taste and adjust for seasoning.

To serve, lay a slice of toasted bread in the bottom of each bowl, then ladle over the onion soup. Top with grated cheese and, if you like, a sprinkling of cinnamon, sugar and/or a drizzle of olive oil. Serve immediately while the soup is still piping hot.

Notes

The red onions are typically Tuscan; if you have access to the famous red onions of Certaldo, near Florence, then you will experience this dish at its most authentic. Modern versions of this dish tend to omit the ‘old fashioned’ elements—the almonds, vinegar, sugar and cinnamon—in favor of a purely savory approach, much more in line with contemporary Italian tastes. Meat broth can be used instead of vegetable, if you like; some recipes forego broth altogether, relying only on the natural liquid of the onions, with perhaps a bit of water to moisten things if necessary, for a very thick soup that is almost like a vegetable stew.  In some recipes, individual soup bowls, topped with cheese, are run under the broiler or in a hot oven until bubbly, in the French manner.

Other modern recipes often call for a bit of carrot and celery are added to sauté along with the onions, and some call for the addition of other vegetables in season, like peas or fava beans in the spring. And some people like to crack an egg into the soup at the last minute, just long enough to let the whites set, leaving the yolk still runny.

Carabaccia (Tuscan Onion Soup)

Rating: 51

Total Time: 1 hour, 30 minutes

Yield: Serves 4

Carabaccia (Tuscan Onion Soup)

Ingredients

  • 1 kilo (2 lbs) red onions, peeled and very thinly sliced
  • Olive oil
  • Salt
  • 1 liter (1 quart) broth, typically vegetarian and preferably homemade
  • 100g (4 oz) of ground almonds
  • 2 Tbs of wine vinegar
  • 2 Tbs of sugar or honey
  • Ground cinnamon
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • Freshly grated Tuscan pecorino or Parmesan cheese
  • A slice of toasted bread per person

Directions

  1. Mix the ground almonds with the vinegar and a dash of cinnamon and set aside to macerate.
  2. In a large pot, preferably of terracotta or enameled cast iron, braise the onions in a generous glug of olive oil with a pinch of salt, as gently as you can possibly manage, until they are well reduced, translucent and falling apart soft. Take care that they don't darken too much or burn as they braise; if need be, add a bit of water along the way to make sure. The whole process will take something like 45-60 minutes.
  3. When the onions are done, add the macerated almonds and mix them into the onions. Let the onions and almonds sauté for a few minutes, then add the sugar or honey, and a good grind of black pepper, and sauté for a few minutes more.
  4. When all the flavors have melded, add the broth and simmer the whole thing gently for about 3o minutes or so. Taste and adjust for seasoning.
  5. To serve, lay a slice of toasted bread in the bottom of each bowl, then ladle over the onion soup. Top with grated cheese and, if you like, a sprinkling of cinnamon, sugar and/or a drizzle of olive oil. Serve immediately while the soup is still piping hot.
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Peposo

Peposo (Peppery Tuscan Beef Stew)

Peposo (Peppery Tuscan Beef Stew)

This Tuscan beef stew has a long history. The story goes that it was invented by the furnace workers (fornaciai) who baked the terracotta tiles for the Brunelleschi’s famous Duomo in Florence. They mixed roughly cut up beef shank, salt, lots of black pepper and red wine—Chianti, of course—in terracotta pots and let it all bake slowly in a corner of their furnace until it was time to eat. The original slow cooker recipe?

The dish is still popular in Tuscany today, and the little town of Impruneta, a few kilometers south of Florence, is well-known for its annual sagra (festival) dedicated to the dish. These days, peposo is more likely than not to be made with tomato sauce, but being the traditionalist I prefer the original, pre-Columbian version.

In any event, once you put the ingredients together in a pot and pop them in the oven—and there’s no browning or soffritto to mess with this time—this tasty dish quite literally cooks itself. After all, those fornaciai had more important matters to attend to… just like you. But I warn you, the ambrosial aroma of peposo as it slowly bakes in the oven can be very distracting.

Ingredients

Serves 4-6 people

  • 1 kg (2 lbs) beef for stew
  • 1 head of garlic
  • 20g (3/4 oz) whole peppercorns
  • Salt, preferably roughly sea salt, to taste
  • 1 bottle red wine, preferably Chianti

Directions

Cut the beef into large chunks, along the natural muscle separations where possible.

Peposo (prep 1)

Lay the beef chunks into the bottom of a terracotta pot and insert the garlic cloves interspersed among the beef chunks here and there. Sprinkle the whole peppercorns and salt over everything.

Peposo (prep 2)

Pour over enough red wine to cover the beef.

Peposo (prep 3)

Cover the pot and place in a slow oven (160C/324F) for 4 hours or more, until the beef is falling apart tender and the red wine has reduced into a rich sauce. If the dish is still too liquid and you’re ready to eat, remove the cover, which will allow it to reduce more quickly. Although unconventional, just before serving you can also add a spoonful or two of potato starch mixed with an equal amount of water to give the sauce some liaison.

Notes

Most Italian recipes for Tuscan beef stew call for beef shank, which can be hard to find. My favorite cut for any sort of braised beef is chuck. You can also use, of course, those pre-cut ‘stewing beef’, although I’ve never quite figured out exactly what cut it is. If using chuck, you may want to trim off some of the excess fat, but leave some on for flavor. Although I haven’t tried it (but I will!) I bet that short ribs would be fabulous made this way.

Like many traditional recipes, there are multiple variations on the theme. As mentioned, the most common has got to be the use of tomatoes, either just a few or a lot (see the related articles listed below for some lovely examples). Some recipes call for ground pepper, which gives the dish a more pungent flavor than leaving the peppercorns whole, so I would use less of it, perhaps half as much by weight. Some recipes call for much less pepper than this anyway, something like 15 peppercorns for this amount of meat (although personally I’d never be patient enough to count them out!) And some recipes call for leaving the head of garlic whole, peeled only of the excess papery outside skin, and perhaps trimmed on top, nestled in the middle of the beef. Other recipes call for cloves left whole and unpeeled. Finally, you will also find recipes that call for a sprig of fresh rosemary or sage to go into the pot along with the rest.

The traditional cooking vessel for making this Tuscan beef stew is a covered terracotta pot. It does give the dish a special taste and, for me, it provides a real sense of connection with those original furnace workers. (What can I say, I’m a romantic at heart…) If you don’t have a terracotta pot, enameled cast iron works perfectly well. And, of course, in a pinch any oven-proof dish will do.

Peposo is traditionally served with slices of Tuscan bread, accompanied perhaps with beans or sautéed spinach. It goes equally well, to my mind, with mashed potatoes or polenta. The latter is not very Tuscan, perhaps, but very nice nonetheless.

Peposo (plated)

Peposo (Peppery Tuscan Beef Stew)

Rating: 51

Prep Time: 15 minutes

Cook Time: 4 hours

Yield: Serves 4-6

Peposo (Peppery Tuscan Beef Stew)

Ingredients

  • 1 kg (2 lbs) beef for stew
  • 1 head of garlic
  • 20g (3/4 oz) whole peppercorns
  • Salt, preferably roughly sea salt, to taste
  • 1 bottle red wine, preferably Chianti

Directions

  1. Cut the beef into large chunks, along the natural muscle separations where possible.
  2. Lay the beef chunks into the bottom of a terracotta pot and insert the garlic cloves interspersed among the beef chunks here and there. Sprinkle the whole peppercorns and salt over everything.
  3. Pour over enough red wine to cover the beef.
  4. Cover the pot and place in a slow oven (160C/324F) for 4 hours or more, until the beef is falling apart tender and the red wine has reduced into a rich sauce. If the dish is still too liquid and you're ready to eat, remove the cover, which will allow it to reduce more quickly. Although unconventional, just before serving you can also add a spoonful or two of potato starch mixed with an equal amount of water to give the sauce some liaison.
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Trippa con patate

Trippa con patate (Tripe and potatoes)

Tripe is one of the most misunderstood parts of the cow. Although classified as an organ meat—part of the famous quinto quarto as the Romans say—well-cooked tripe has its own unique mild and subtle flavor, not at all like other organ meats such as liver or kidneys. Even for the doubtful, tripe is worth a try.

Traditional Italian cookery has many tripe recipes. (Back in the day, Italians practiced snout to tail cooking out of necessity, not because it was trendy.) Indeed, tripe was a fixed part of the Italian diet and Saturday was the traditional day for eating it, just as Friday was for fish and Thursday for gnocchi. Sabato trippa! is an ancient tradition.

Memorie di Angelina has already featured trippa alla romana, the typical tripe dish of Rome, with its touch of peperoncino, subtle hint of mentuccia (Roman mint) and sharp romano cheese, and Milan’s buseca, milder but hearty with fagioli di Spagna (butter beans).  For this post, I was going to feature another very famous tripe dish, trippa alla fiorentina from Florence, but after some unexpected guests showed up at our door, I found that I didn’t have nearly enough tripe to go around, so I stretched it out with potatoes, spooned the resulting stew into individual terracotta bowls and gratinéed them in a hot oven. It turned out to be a delicious variation on the theme, and well worth sharing with you, dear readers. As they say, necessity is the mother of invention.

Ingredients

Serves 4-6 persons

1 kilo (2 lbs.) pre-boiled tripe, cut into bite-sized strips (see Notes below)
1 onion, finely chopped
1 carrot, finely chopped
1 stalk of celery, finely chopped
Olive oil
A splash of white wine
250g (8 oz) canned tomatoes, crushed with your hands
4-6 small to medium potatoes, peeled and cut into wedges
Salt and pepper

Optional:
A bay leaf

If finishing in the oven:
Parmesan cheese and butter

Directions

In a large, heavy gauged pot, preferably made of terracotta or enameled cast iron, sauté the onion, carrot and celery, very gently, in a generous amount of olive oil until soft and translucent, making sure not let any of them brown. (Add a few drops of water if things start to go that way.) Season generously with salt and pepper as you go.

Add the tripe strips and stir well, so every bit of tripe is well covered with your soffritto. Simmer the tripe for a few minutes to allow it to take on the flavor of the aromatics (insaporire). Then add a splash of white wine, raise the heat, and let the wine cook off.

Now add the canned tomatoes, crushing them with your hands as you add them to the pot, together with the bay leaf, if using. Mix everything well and cover the pot. Turn down the heat to low and let it all simmer for a good 30-45 minutes, until the tripe is quite tender and the sauce well reduced. About halfway through the simmering, add the potatoes, mix them in well, re-cover the pot and continue simmering. When the tripe is tender, if you find the dish too liquid, uncover the pot and raise the heat to reduce for a few minutes, until you have the consistency you like. Taste and adjust for seasoning.

The dish can be eaten just as is, with grated parmesan cheese on top, or served on the side for those who like it. But if you prefer, you can ladle the tripe into an oven-proof serving dish (or individual bowls) and top it with a generous grating of parmesan cheese and dots of butter here and there. Place in a moderate oven (180C/350F) for about 10-15 minutes, or until the tripe is bubbling away and the cheese has melted and browned nicely. Let the tripe cool for a few minutes before serving.

Notes

Raw tripe is extremely tough and takes hours upon hours of cooking to get tender. Fortunately, it is nearly never sold raw. In Italy, tripe is sold completely pre-cooked and cut into serving pieces, so it is only requires a half-hour or so of further cooking to make. Elsewhere—or at least here in the US—tripe is usually sold in large pieces and only partially pre-boiled, so it requires a good hour or more of pre-boiling, then cutting up. To do this, rinse your tripe well, then place it in a large stock pot. Add water to cover, together with some aromatic vegetables (onion, carrot and celery) cut into large chunks, as it you were making broth. Boil the tripe until it is almost, but not quite tender, then drain it under cold water. Using a sharp knife, cut the tripe up into bite-sized pieces. Customarily, these are strips about 5-6cm (1-1/2-2 in) long. This pre-cooking can take anything from an hour up to three hours, depending on the tripe you buy. Unfortunately, there isn’t much uniformity in the tripe you can buy here, so if you can, ask your butcher or store attendant how much cooking the tripe will need. If they don’t know, you’ll need to test as you go.

As for many of these ‘down home’ dishes, the measurements here are really pretty loose. You can add more or less tomato, and more or less potato (or omit the potato altogether, in which case you will have trippa alla fiorentina).

The finishing in the oven is a nice touch if you make your tripe ahead and want to reheat it. Like most long simmered dishes, this one is even better made that way.

Focaccia al rosmarino (Rosemary Flat Bread)

Focaccia al rosmarino (Rosemary Flat Bread)

A short post this week. Things are crazy.

Here’s another great snack you can make starting with a basic pizza dough, whether homemade or store-bought: spread it out on a cookie sheet or shallow rectangular baking pan, poke it all over with your fingers, then top with rosemary, sale grosso, pepper and a good drizzle of olive oil, and bake it in the oven until golden. Super-simple but really, really tasty. So tasty that I bet you’ll have a hard time not turning that snack into a full meal….

Ingredients

  • 1 batch pizza dough, either homemade (see this post) or store-bought
  • 2-3 springs of fresh rosemary
  • Coarse sea salt
  • Freshly ground pepper
  • Olive Oil

Directions

Take your fully risen dough and spread it out with you hands in a well-greased cookie sheet or shallow rectangular baking pan, making sure the dough covers the whole bottom, including the corners. Poke the dough all over with your fingers. (This creates little depressions to catch the oil and flavorings.)

Strip the rosemary leaves off their stems and chop them roughly with a knife or mezzaluna. Sprinkle the rosemary all over the top of the dough. Sprinkle the dough with the sea salt and lots of freshly ground pepper. Drizzle the top generously with olive oil.

Let the dough rest in a warm place for a while so it rises again. Depending on how ‘fluffy’ you like your focaccia, you can let it rest as little as 30 minutes or as much as 1-1/2 hours. (Recipes vary wildly on this point; I usually go for an hour.)

Pop the dough into a moderately hot over (180C/350F), preferably with the convection function on, for about 30 minutes or so, or until the top is browned to your liking. (Again, I like mine crunchier than  most.)

Take the focaccia out of the oven, let it cool off a bit on a rack and eat!

Notes

Focaccia is equally good, in my book, either warm from the oven or at room temperature. I like mine with lots of seasonings (as you can tell from the photos!) but most you will find are much more restrained.

The genius of the dish, of course, is in the toppings, which really should be of the best-quality you can find: fresh rosemary (in my case, just picked from my herb garden), coarse best-quality sea salt, freshly ground aromatic black pepper and nice, fruity olive oil. If you want to take it to the next level, then make your own pizza dough and let it rise slowly, overnight, for full flavor.

The Tuscans call this flat bread schiacciata, which means ‘crushed’ or ‘flattened’, a reference to the way that you flatten the dough out and poke it with your fingers.

Focaccia al rosmarino (Rosemary Flat Bread)

Rating: 51

Prep Time: 15 minutes

Cook Time: 1 hour

Total Time: 1 hour, 15 minutes

Focaccia al rosmarino (Rosemary Flat Bread)

Ingredients

  • 1 batch pizza dough, either homemade (see this post) or store-bought
  • 2-3 springs of fresh rosemary
  • Coarse sea salt
  • Freshly ground pepper
  • Olive Oil

Directions

  1. Take your fully risen dough and spread it out with you hands in a well-greased cookie sheet or shallow rectangular baking pan, making sure the dough covers the whole bottom, including the corners. Poke the dough all over with your fingers. (This creates little depressions to catch the oil and flavorings.)
  2. Strip the rosemary leaves off their stems and chop them roughly with a knife or mezzaluna. Sprinkle the rosemary all over the top of the dough. Sprinkle the dough with the sea salt and lots of freshly ground pepper. Drizzle the top generously with olive oil.
  3. Let the dough rest in a warm place for a while so it rises again. Depending on how 'fluffy' you like your focaccia, you can let it rest as little as 30 minutes or as much as 1-1/2 hours.
  4. Pop the dough into a moderately hot over (180C/350F), preferably with the convection function on, for about 30 minutes or so, or until the top is browned to your liking.
  5. Take the focaccia out of the oven, let it cool off a bit on a rack and eat!

For a recipe for making pizza dough, visit: http://memoriediangelina.com/2009/08/03/angelinas-pizza-casareccia/

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